• amaranth seeds;
  • air classification;
  • thermal treatment;
  • germination;
  • functional properties;
  • antinutritional factors


The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of 5.1 and 6.3 g g−1 in flour of popped seeds of both species. Generally, fat absorption increased after the treatments. Air classification and germination followed by drying at low temperature increased the foam stability of the flours, while thermal treatment and germination followed by drying at higher temperatures reduced the foam stability. All treatments except air classification decreased the emulsion stability. Also, all treatments except germination followed by drying at 30 °C increased the flour dispersibility, whereas the soluble nitrogen index was increased in the germinated seed flours and decreased in thermal treated seeds and air-classified flours. Air classification increased the contents of phenolic compounds and phytate and decreased the contents of enzyme inhibitors, whereas the thermal treatments reduced the contents of phenolic compounds, phytate and enzyme inhibitors to a greater extent for cooking than for popping. Germination followed by drying reduced the level of phenolic compounds, phytate and enzyme inhibitors. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry