Distribution of soft wheat kernel lipids into flour milling fractions



Samples of whole and manually degermed Atou wheat were milled on a micro-mill to give straight-run flour, coarse offal, fine offal, finished bran and bran finisher flour. The non-starch lipids in these products were compared with non-starch lipids in the aleurone-free starchy endosperm, and with lipids in the germ and aleurone of the original wheat. About half of the triglyceride in flour was derived from the germ; no glycolipids or phospholipids were derived from germ, and no lipids of any kind were derived from the aleurone. Non-starch lipids in the aleurone-free endosperm of a mixed English soft wheat grist were then compared with the non-starch lipids in 11 flour streams from a commercial mill. All flours had much more triglyceride than the endosperm. In flours from the reduction system there were significant correlations between flour colour grade, sterylester, triglyceride, diglyceride, free fatty acid and diacylphospholipids, but none between ash or protein and colour or any class of lipid. Analysis of the principal components of variation in a simplified matrix describing all 11 flours placed triglyceride, diglyceride, free fatty acid, and diacylphospholipids close together in one group, and all glycolipids and N-acylphospholipids in a separate unrelated group. Sterylester and colour were loosely associated with the first group but could also be regarded as part of a third loose group with ash and protein. The results are interpreted in terms of lipid distribution within the wheat kernel, and their significance in milling and baking practice.