Two kinds of rose (Rosa damascena Miller) oil were used: decanted oil distilled from the fresh petals (DOFP) and blended oil distilled from the paled (fermented) petals (BOPP). Eight samples from Gülbirlik cooperative factories (three DOFP, four BOPP) and a private factor (one BOPP) were of 1990 produce, and seven samples from Gülbirlik (two DOFP, four BOPP) and a private factory (one BOPP) were of 1991 produce. In all, 15 samples were analysed for density, refractive index and optical rotation, and their chemical composition by GC and GC-MS. The samples showed some differences in the optical rotation. DOFP had high density and refractive index values. In general, 68 components were identified, representing c 88–98% of the oils: 27 hydrocarbons, 19 alcohols, eight aldehydes, six oxides and ethers, five esters, two ketones and one phenol. Citronellol (24.47–42.97%), nonadecane (6.44–18.95%), geraniol (2.11–18.04%), ethanol (0.00–13.43%), heneicosane (2.28–8.90%), nerol (0.75–7.57%) and 1-nonadecene (1.80–5.40%) were the major components as overall ranges of the samples. Percentages of certain components differed between the factories, years and oil types (DOFP and BOPP). The results indicated that an extensive and detailed research from harvesting to end-product storage was needed for the establishment of the material and technology requirements to obtain a Turkish rose oil with standard composition and high quality.