• baking;
  • conventional and nonconventional ovens;
  • physical and biochemical changes;
  • quality difference


Undesirable qualities of breads baked in nonconventional ovens have been observed by most researchers. The altered heat and mass transfer patterns and much shorter baking times associated with microwave radiation resulted in a crustless product with tougher, coarser, but less firm texture. Insufficient starch gelatinization, microwave-induced gluten changes, and rapidly generated gas and steam caused by the heating mode could be reasons for quality changes in the microwave-baked breads. Although breads baked in an electrical resistance oven did not brown, their interior characteristics and shelf-life were superior to those of products baked in a conventional oven. Bread with a superior keeping quality was obtained using an air impingement convection oven. The determination and explanation of the physical and biochemical changes that occur in products during baking in conventional versus nonconventional ovens are fruitful areas for future research.