Comparison of volatile emissions from undamaged and mechanically damaged almonds†
Article first published online: 14 APR 2008
This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Volume 88, Issue 8, pages 1363–1368, June 2008
How to Cite
Beck, J. J., Higbee, B. S., Merrill, G. B. and Roitman, J. N. (2008), Comparison of volatile emissions from undamaged and mechanically damaged almonds. J. Sci. Food Agric., 88: 1363–1368. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.3224
Segments of this report were presented at the 48th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Portland, ME 04101, USA, 14–18 July 2007 and at the 17th Annual Multi-Crop Aflatoxin Elimination Workshop, Sacramento, CA 95814, USA, 25–28 October 2004
- Issue published online: 30 APR 2008
- Article first published online: 14 APR 2008
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 DEC 2007
- Manuscript Revised: 10 DEC 2007
- Manuscript Received: 18 SEP 2007
- USDA-ARS. Grant Number: CRIS 5325-42000-036-00
- Paramount Farming Company. Grant Number: CRADA #58-3K95-7-1198
BACKGROUND: The navel orangeworm (NOW) Amyelois transitella (Walker) is a major insect pest of almonds causing considerable monetary setbacks for both growers and processors, and thus control of NOW is one of the top priorities for the almond industry. Field observations purport that NOW is attracted to previously injured almonds. Accordingly, in this study the volatile output of damaged almonds was investigated in an effort to identify potential attractants for further studies into the control and/or monitoring of NOW. Mature almonds from the Monterey variety were evaluated for their volatile composition after mechanical damage and compared with the volatile composition of undamaged almonds.
RESULTS: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected on Tenax, desorbed and identified via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. VOCs unique to the damaged tree nuts included trace amounts of 3-pentanol and isomers of the spiroketal chalcogran. VOCs that increased in relative amounts after damage include the spiroketal conophthorin and numerous four-carbon ester and ketone as well as alcohol derivatives, in addition to two eight-carbon chain compounds.
CONCLUSION: Several VOCs, both unique and in increased amounts, were identified from damaged almonds. Their presence in damaged almonds warrants further investigation into their role in NOW response to damaged almonds, which may lead to insights into the control and/or monitoring of NOW. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.