Experimental assessment of toxic phytochemicals in Jatropha curcas: oil, cake, bio-diesel and glycerol



BACKGROUND:Jatropha curcas seed is a rich source of oil; however, it can not be utilised for nutritional purposes due to presence of toxic and anti-nutritive compounds. The main objective of the present study was to quantify the toxic phytochemicals present in Indian J. curcas (oil, cake, bio-diesel and glycerol).

RESULTS: The amount of phorbol esters is greater in solvent extracted oil (2.8 g kg−1) than in expeller oil (2.1 g kg−1). Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of the purified compound from an active extract of oil confirmed the presence of phorbol esters. Similarly, the phorbol esters content is greater in solvent extracted cake (1.1 g kg−1) than in cake after being expelled (0.8 g kg−1). The phytate and trypsin inhibitory activity of the cake was found to be 98 g kg−1 and 8347 TIU g−1 of cake, respectively. Identification of curcin was achieved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the concentration of curcin was 0.95 g L−1 of crude concentrate obtained from cake.

CONCLUSION: Higher amounts of phorbol esters are present in oil than cake but bio-diesel and glycerol are free of phorbol esters. The other anti-nutritional components such as trypsin inhibitors, phytates and curcin are present in cake, so the cake should be detoxified before being used for animal feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry