BACKGROUND: The effects of a high protein diet on insulin secretion and glucose metabolism have been quite controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term isocaloric high animal protein intake on insulin secretion in diet-induced obese rats.
RESULTS: After the experimental period (24 weeks), the high-fat diet-induced obese rats that were fed isocaloric high-protein diets (HP) had lower body weight gain (P < 0.01) and lower visceral fat (P < 0.05) than normal protein (NP) rats. Fasting plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was also reduced significantly (P < 0.05), as well as serum insulin levels at 5 min and 10 min by intravenous insulin releasing test. In addition, insulin mRNA and pancreatic duodenal homeodomain-1 (PDX-1), GLP-1 protein expression were both markedly lower in HP rats (P < 0.05), while PDX-1 mRNA in HP rats had no difference from NP rats.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that long-term isocaloric high animal protein intake reduces the acute insulin response in obese rats and the decrease of insulin is associated with both reduced weight gain and inhibition of PDX-1 expression. GLP-1 might be a negative feedback for the balance of energy metabolism secondary to changes of body weight and visceral fat. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry