†Present address: Department of Applied Chemistry, School for Physical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, (A Central University), Lucknow-226025, India.
Potential of powdered activated mustard cake for decolorising raw sugar
Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012
Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Volume 93, Issue 1, pages 157–165, 15 January 2013
How to Cite
Singh, K., Bharose, R., Verma, S. K. and Singh, V. K. (2013), Potential of powdered activated mustard cake for decolorising raw sugar. J. Sci. Food Agric., 93: 157–165. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.5744
- Issue published online: 29 NOV 2012
- Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 23 APR 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 APR 2012
- Manuscript Received: 17 SEP 2011
- agricultural by-product;
- raw sugar decolorisation
BACKGROUND: Carbon decolorisation has become customary in the food processing industries; however, it is not economical. Extensive research has therefore been directed towards investigating potential substitutes for commercial activated carbons which might have the advantage of offering an effective, lower-cost replacement for existing bone char or coal-based granular activated carbon (GAC).
RESULTS: The physical (bulk density and hardness), chemical (pH and mineral content) and adsorption characteristics (iodine test, molasses test and raw sugar decolorisation efficiency) of powdered activated mustard cake (PAMC) made from de-oiled mustard cake were determined and compared to commercial adsorbents. Although the colour removal efficiency of the PAMC is lower than that of commercial materials, it is cost effective and eco-friendly compared to the existing decolorisation/refining processes. To reduce the load on GAC/activated carbon/charcoal, PAMC could be used on an industrial scale. A decolorisation mechanism has been postulated on the basis of oxygen surface functionalities and surface charge of the PAMC and, accordingly, charge transfer interaction seems to be responsible for the decolorisation mechanism. In addition, a complex interplay of electrostatics and dispersive interaction seem to be involved during the decolorisation process.
CONCLUSION: A low-cost agricultural waste product in the form of de-oiled mustard cake was converted to an efficient adsorbent, PAMC, for use in decolorising raw as well as coloured sugar solutions. The physical, chemical, adsorption characteristics and raw sugar decolorisation efficiency of PAMC were determined and compared to those of commercial adsorbents. The colour removal efficiency of the PAMC is lower than that of commercial materials but it is cost effective and eco-friendly as compared to existing decolorisation/refining processes. The availability of the raw material for the production of PAMC further demands its use on an industrial scale. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry