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Characterisation of commercial aromatised vinegars: phenolic compounds, volatile composition and antioxidant activity

Authors

  • MarÍa J Cejudo-Bastante,

    1. Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences–CAIV, University of Cádiz Agrifood Campus of International Excellence, Cádiz, Spain
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  • Enrique Durán-Guerrero,

    1. Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences–CAIV, University of Cádiz Agrifood Campus of International Excellence, Cádiz, Spain
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  • Ramón Natera-Marín,

    1. Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences–CAIV, University of Cádiz Agrifood Campus of International Excellence, Cádiz, Spain
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  • Remedios Castro-Mejías,

    Corresponding author
    • Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences–CAIV, University of Cádiz Agrifood Campus of International Excellence, Cádiz, Spain
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  • Carmelo García-Barroso

    1. Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences–CAIV, University of Cádiz Agrifood Campus of International Excellence, Cádiz, Spain
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Correspondence to: Remedios Castro-Mejías Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences–CAIV, University of Cádiz Agrifood Campus of International Excellence P.O. Box 40, Polígono Río San Pedro, Puerto Real 11510, Cádiz, Spain. E-mail: remedios.castro@uca.es

Abstract

Background

Nineteen commercially available aromatised vinegars, which were representative of this type of product, were tested to ascertain their phenolic and volatile composition and antioxidant activity. The aromatised vinegars came from different raw materials such as fruits, spices, herbs and vegetables. The antioxidant activity was determined by means of photochemiluminescence, phenolic profile by using ultra performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, and the volatile composition was determined by using stir bar sorptive extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.

Results

Nine polyphenolic compounds and 141 volatile compounds were identified. Vinegar aromatised with black truffle and rosemary obtained the highest values of antioxidant activity, followed by those aromatised with lemon, tarragon, aromatic herbs and vegetables. Antioxidant activity was highly correlated with the presence of trans-p-coutaric acid, trans-caftaric acid, 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural and furfural. Moreover, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol was exclusive to the vinegar aromatised with tarragon, while p-menth-1,8-ol, dimethyl styrene, 4-methyl acetophenone and nootkatone were only found in vinegar aromatised with lemon.

Conclusion

On the basis of the results from the cluster analysis of cases, it can be concluded that the grouping responds more to the trademark of each vinegar than to the raw material.

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