• fluoroquinolones;
  • ciprofloxacin;
  • hapten;
  • monoclonal antibody;
  • heterologous ELISA;
  • chicken



The residues of fluoroquinolone drugs in foods of animal origin are dangerous to the consumers. The objective of this study was to produce a generic monoclonal antibody for determination of fluoroquinolone residues in meat.


Two novel haptens of ciprofloxacin containing a free amidogen group on the piperazinyl ring were synthesised that were used to produce the monoclonal antibodies. The antibodies obtained simultaneously recognised 12 fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, sarafloxacin, diflocaxin, danofloxacin, ofloxacin, marbofloxacin, pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, amifloxacin and enofloxacin). After evaluation of different coating antigen–antibody combinations, a heterologous competitive indirect ELISA was used to determine the 12 drugs. The cross-reactivities were in the range of 23–120% and the limits of detection were in the range of 1.0–4.5 ng mL−1. Eight fluoroquinolone drugs licensed as veterinary drugs in China were fortified into blank chicken for analysis. The recoveries were in the range of 61.5–82.5% with coefficients of variation in the range of 7.5–15.2%.


This method could be used as a rapid screening tool for routine monitoring the residues of these fluoroquinolone drugs in animal-derived foods.