Total phenolics content, anthocyanins, and dietary fiber content of apple pomace powders produced by vacuum-belt drying
Correspondence to: William L Kerr, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. E-mail: email@example.com
Apple pomace is a waste material from apple juice processing, and contains significant amounts of dietary fiber and phytochemicals. Many of these compounds may be degraded post-pressing and during drying operations. Continuous vacuum-belt drying (VBD) was studied as a means of drying and maintaining quality of apple pomace. The color and chemical properties of samples dried by vacuum-belt drying at different temperatures were evaluated including total phenolics content (TPC), monomeric anthocyanins (TMA) and dietary fiber content (TDF).
VBD powders were pale golden yellow, and those dried at 80°C did not differ in L*, a* and b* values from freeze-dried powders. VBD pomace had 44.9 to 51.9 g gallic acid equivalents kg−1 TPC, with greatest retention for pomace dried at 80 and 95°C. TPC for pomace dried at 80 or 95°C was not significantly different from that for freeze-dried pomace. TMA levels (74.0 mg C3G kg−1, where C3G is cyanidine 3-O-glucoside equivalents) were highest in pomace vacuum dried at 80°C. TDF ranged from 442 to 495 g kg−1 in vacuum-dried pomace and was not significantly different from TDF of freeze-dried poamce (480 g kg−1).
In all cases, TPC, TMA and TDF were higher in VBD pomace than in freeze-dried whole apple, while VBD pomace prepared at 80 or 95°C had fiber and phytochemical levels similar to freeze-dried powders. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry