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Effects of brassinosteroid analogues on total phenols, antioxidant activity, sugars, organic acids and yield of field grown endive (Cichorium endivia L.)


Correspondence to: Asunción Amorós, Department of Applied Biology, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela (Miguel Hernández University of Elche), Ctra. Beniel Km 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Spain. E-mail:



Cichorium endivia L., either cooked or eaten raw in salads, is a favourite cultivated vegetable around the world and the popularity is attributed to its healthy properties, which are mainly due to its high levels of antioxidant compounds and high content of minerals, provitamin A and vitamins. Brassinosteroids are a family of hormones that are found in plants and which serve as potent growth promoters. The effects of two brassinosteroid analogues, DI-31 and DI-100, were evaluated at concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 ppm together with a seaweed extract and amino acid mixture called Tomex Amin to enhance their activity.


All treatments with DI-100 and DI-31 resulted in the highest production increases. The chemical variables related to endive quality, such as moisture, carbon and nitrogen content, sugar and organic acid content were similar in the control and treated endives. Total antioxidant activity and total phenols increased significantly in endive treated with brassinosteroid analogues.


The results showed that sprayed brassinosteroid analogues mixed with Tomex Amin may play an important role in increasing the yield and the contents of total antioxidant activity and total phenols of field grown endives. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry

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