Effect of new synthetic PEGylated ferulic acids in comparison with ferulic acid and commercial surfactants on the properties of wheat flour dough and bread


Correspondence to: François Nicks, Unit of Biological and Industrial Chemistry, University of Liege-Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Passage des Déportés 2, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium. E-mail: fnicks@ulg.ac.be



Ferulic acid esterified with poly(ethylene glycol) with three different average molecular weights (200, 400 and 1000 g mol−1) was studied in bread-making. The effects of these antioxidants on the properties of wheat flour dough and bread were analysed and compared with those obtained with ferulic acid and two commercial surfactants, the diacetyl tartaric acid ester of mono- and diglycerides and sodium stearoyl lactylate. Farinographic and alveographic methods as well as weight, volume and bread firmness measurements were used for this purpose.


Similar to ferulic acid, when the PEGylated derivatives were implemented in the dough (5000 ppm), it accelerated the breakdown of the dough and decreased its rheological properties. However, the important diminution of loaf volume, observed when dough supplemented with ferulic acid was baked, was avoided. That decrease in volume was related to the inhibition of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) by the unesterified ferulic acid. Moreover, two of the PEGylated ferulic acids even contributed to an increase of loaf volumes (5–6%) and demonstrated crumb softener properties.


The addition of ferulic acid to wheat flour dough caused the inhibition of the yeast, which resulted in decreased bread volume. That effect could be avoid by the esterification of ferulic acid with poly(ethylene glycol). © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry