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Microwave-assisted extraction of edible Cicerbita alpina shoots and its LC-MS phenolic profile


Correspondence to: Giancarlo Cravotto, Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Università di Torino, Via P Giuria 9, 10125 Turin, Italy. E-mail:



Crude extracts obtained from the edible shoots of Cicerbita alpina using microwave-assisted extraction have been qualitatively profiled by liquid chromatography coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometry detector and an electrospray ionization interface (LC/ESI-MS3) for their phenolic content. The main challenge of the present investigation was to create a working strategy designed to obtain a rich phenolic profile despite the limited amount of starting plant material and phytochemical data available.


The best extraction conditions (temperature 90 °C; time 5 min; solvent methanol:water 50:50; sample weight 3 g) were achieved using a full factorial 24 experimental design. Fifteen compounds, including flavonoid conjugates and phenolic acid derivatives, were detected and tentatively identified. The total phenolic content varied from 93.58 mg g−1 gallic acid equivalents (GAE), for the cultivated plant to 10.54 mg g−1 GAE for the wild one, whereas the total flavonoid content varied from 145.00 mg g−1 rutin for the cultivated plant to 25.22 mg g−1 rutin for the wild one.


A total of 11 compounds are herein reported, for the first time, as coming from this plant source. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry