Stability of the pyrethroid pesticide bifenthrin in milled wheat during thermal processing, yeast and lactic acid fermentation, and storage


Correspondence to: Tijana M Đorđević, Institute of Pesticides and Environmental Protection, Banatska 31b, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia. E-mail:



Pesticide residues have become an unavoidable part of food commodities. In the context of increased interest for food processing techniques as a tool for reducing pesticide residues, it is interesting to study the potential loss of pesticides during lactic acid and yeast fermentation. In the present paper the effect of fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and storage on 23 °C on bifenthrin in wheat was investigated. In addition, the effect of sterilisation (applied in order to avoid contamination with wild microorganism strains, i.e. to determine the individual effects of used strains) on bifenthrin degradation was tested as well.


No significant loss of bifenthrin was observed during storage, or after the sterilisation. During the lactic acid fermentation, reduction within wheat fortified with 0.5 mg kg−1 was 42%, while quite lower within samples fortified with 2.5 mg kg−1, maximum 18%. In contrast, bifenthrin concentration was not reduced during yeast fermentation, as the reduction in fortified samples was in the range of spontaneous chemical degradation during incubation period.


Possible bifenthrin contamination in wheat, in amounts over the maximum residue limits, could not be reduced by sterilisation or by yeast fermentation, but lactic acid fermentation could be an effective tool for minimising residual contamination. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry