• Acetobacter;
  • hsp60 gene;
  • direct sequencing;
  • species-specific PCR;
  • mini-sequencing



To identify the Acetobacter species using phenotypic and genotypic (16S rDNA sequence analysis) technique alone is inaccurate. The aim of this study was to use the hsp60 gene as a target for species discrimination in the genus Acetobacter, as well as to develop species-specific polymerase chain reaction and mini-sequencing methods for species identification and differentiation.


The average sequence similarity for the hsp60 gene (89.8%) among type strains was significantly less than that for the 16S rRNA gene (98.0%), and the most Acetobacter species could be clearly distinguished. In addition, a pair of species-specific primer was designed and used to specifically identify Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter estunensis and Acetobacter oeni, but none of the other Acetobacter strains. Afterwards, two specific single-nucleotide polymorphism primers were designed and used to direct differentiate the strains belonging to the species A. aceti by mini-sequencing assay.


The phylogenetic relationships in the Acetobacter genus can be resolved by using hsp60 gene sequencing, and the species of A. aceti can be differentiated using novel species-specific PCR combined with the mini-sequencing technology. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry