• dry-grind processing of corn to ethanol and DDGS;
  • phenolic acids;
  • HPLC-DAD-MS analysis;
  • antioxidant capacity;
  • ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay



Nine fractions (1, ground corn; 2, cooked slurry; 3, liquefied slurry; 4, fermented mash; 5, whole stillage; 6, thin stillage; 7, condensed distillers soluble (CDS); 8, distillers wet grains (DWG); and 9, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)) were collected at different steps from three commercial dry-grind bioethanol processing plants. Samples were analyzed for individual and total phenolic acid content by HPLC and the antioxidant capacity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay.


There were significant differences in phenolic acid (individual and total) content and the antioxidant capacity in the nine fractions collected from the three processing plants, but the changing trends in all three plants were very similar. The four phenolic acids identified in all fractions were caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids. Vanillic acid was present in all fractions except fractions 2 and 3. All fractions collected following fermentation, except fractions 6 and 7, had higher concentrations of phenolic acids than fractions before fermentation, with DWG having the highest phenolic acids content.


The increased concentration of phenolic acid content after fermentation in four fractions (4, 5, 8 and 9) was primarily due to depletion of starch during dry-grind processing. Further research is needed to investigate the influence of enriched phenolic acid concentration in DDGS on diet palatability (sensory property) and animal health. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA