Synovial sarcoma accounts about 9% of soft tissue sarcomas, most commonly develops in the extremity of young adults, is considered high grade and contains a characteristic translocation (X;18;p11;q11). While surgery and radiation therapy have achieved excellent local control, distant metastasis remains the principal problem limiting survival. Although ifosfamide based chemotherapy has been associated with an improved survival in patients with synovial sarcoma, the search for less toxic and more targeted systemic therapies is ongoing. J. Surg. Oncol. 2008;97:314–320. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.