Lymph node status is not part of the staging system for cervical cancer, but provides important information for prognosis and treatment. This article reviews the incidence and patterns of lymph node metastasis, and the issues surrounding surgical assessment of lymph nodes. The preoperative assessment of lymph nodes by imaging, as well as the intraoperative assessment by sentinel nodes will be discussed. Finally, the prognostic and therapeutic implications of lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer will be reviewed. J. Surg. Oncol. 2009;99:242–247. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.