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Keywords:

  • chemokine receptor;
  • CTC;
  • methylation;
  • microRNA

Abstract

The mechanism of metastasis is a complex set of events that build upon each other to achieve successful growth in organ sites beyond the primary tumor. The cumulative events for metastasis of different cancers have both common and specific cancer specific events. This review discusses several key factors in different cancers that are responsible in metastasis, which includes epigenetic regulation of tumor suppressor genes, functional activity of tumor-related chemokine receptors, and circulating tumor cells. J. Surg. Oncol. 2011;103:508–517. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.