Tumor-associated neovascularization allows tumor cells to express their critical growth advantage, whereas lymphatic invasion is crucial for the metastatic process. Various growth factors stimulate blood and lymphatic neovascularization and modulate vessel permeability in tumors. The first anti-angiogenic drugs are already in routine use, and new anti-vascular therapeutics are evaluated in clinical trials. Conversely, pro-lymphangiogenic therapy could be implemented to treat cancer survivors suffering from secondary lymphedema. J. Surg. Oncol. 2011;103:484–488. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.