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Keywords:

  • gene expression array;
  • breast cancer;
  • colon cancer;
  • adrenal cancer;
  • biomarkers

Abstract

The development of DNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technologies has allowed for precise quantitation of RNA expression of hundreds to thousands of genes. These technologies have significantly impacted the study and understanding of cancer in terms of its molecular and genetic characteristics. In this review article, breast cancer, colon cancer, and adrenal carcinoma have been chosen to illustrate the principle and techniques of genomic profiling and to illustrate how such methods may be used to develop genomic signatures for personalized risk assessment and to individualize patient treatment. J. Surg. Oncol. 2011;103:563–573. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.