The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery


  • Conflict of Interest Statement: John V. Frangioni: All FLARE technology is owned by Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School. As inventor, Dr. Frangioni may someday receive royalties if products are commercialized. Dr. Frangioni is the founder and unpaid director of The FLARE Foundation, a non-profit organization focused on promoting the dissemination of medical imaging technology for research and clinical use.


Optical imaging using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence provides new prospects for general and oncologic surgery. ICG is currently utilised in NIR fluorescence cancer-related surgery for three indications: sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, intraoperative identification of solid tumours, and angiography during reconstructive surgery. Therefore, understanding its advantages and limitations is of significant importance. Although non-targeted and non-conjugatable, ICG appears to be laying the foundation for more widespread use of NIR fluorescence-guided surgery. J. Surg. Oncol. 2011; 104:323–332. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.