Selective sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) plays an important role in the staging of the regional nodal basins for head and neck (H&N) melanoma. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy is mandatory to identify the regional nodal basin(s) accurately for a newly diagnosed H&N primary melanoma of at least 1 mm or greater. A wide local excision should be delayed if SLN mapping is indicated, to minimize watershed effect and maximize accuracy in identifying the “true” SLN because of the complex lymphatic network in the H&N region. An experienced multidisciplinary team is required for optimal identification of H&N SLNs. In general, selective SLND can replace ELND to minimize the complications of a neck dissection. Completion lymph node dissection is only indicated when the SLN is positive. A nerve stimulator should be used during selective SLND in the parotid and posterior triangle to minimize the injury to the facial and spinal accessory nerve. J. Surg. Oncol. 2011; 104:361–368. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.