The field of melanoma therapeutics has experienced a dramatic paradigm shift over the last 12 months through recent discoveries of novel therapeutics targeting known oncogenes and immunotherapeutic antibodies. In this article, we review these findings and provide a framework to understand these discoveries, their significance in melanoma therapy, and role in clinical care. As this understanding grows, enduring therapeutic success may be achieved through tailored use of molecular markers and immunotherapies in sequential or combinatorial methods. J. Surg. Oncol. 2011; 104:425–429. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.