Serum CA 19-9 is the only FDA approved biomarker recommended for use in the routine management of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Over 2,000 biomarker studies related to pancreatic cancer appear in the literature, highlighting the need to discover and develop improved tests. Diagnostic biomarkers have implications for early detection of PDA, prognostic markers predict patient survival and recurrence patterns, and predictive markers can help personalize treatment regimens. J. Surg. Oncol. 2013;107:15–22. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.