Approximately 15% of soft tissue sarcomas are retroperitoneal. The occult location and anatomic complexity results in local recurrences in the majority of patients. Predictors of recurrence include histological subtype, completeness of resection, and the hospital case volume. The most significant predictor of outcome following local recurrence is the resectability of the recurrent disease. An understanding of the implication of tumor biology on outcomes is essential in determining optimal management for patients with recurrent retroperitoneal sarcoma. J. Surg. Oncol. 2014 109:53–59. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.