Experimental evidence indicates that specific sex hormonal imbalance, deficiency, and excess may be causes of tumors or at least contribute in some way to their development. Clinical observations show that the prognoses of patients with various malignancies differ among males and females, and some cancers can be alleviated and partially controlled by altering the accustomed hormonal environment. Although beneficial effects usually are only temporary, there is no doubt that some cancers are hormone-dependent to a degree. A significant number of prostatic carcinoma in males and breast carcinoma in both sexes have been treated with various additive or ablative endocrine manipulations. The detection and quantitation of specific steroid binding proteins in hormone-sensitive tumors have enhanced our understanding of the mechanism of endocrinal therapy. Excluding carcinoma of the breast and of the sex organs (ovary and uterus in females, testis and prostate in males), many other solid tumors have been tested for the presence of estrogen and other steroid receptors. A fair number of solid cancers contains estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR), even those from male patients. Thus, the better prognosis of females with sarcoma, melanoma, liver, colorectal and other cancers cannot simply be explained by the presence or absence of estrogen or progesterone receptors. This review attempts to summarize clinical reports of this interesting phenomenon, including therapeutic results with estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and other hormonal approaches.