The evolution of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC)



For a technology little over a decade old, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) has quickly reached the status of one of the most powerful analytical tools for volatile organic compounds. At the heart of any GC×GC system is an interface, which physically connects the primary and the secondary columns and acts to preserve the separation obtained in the first dimension (first column) while allowing additional separation in the second dimension. The paper presents a review of the technology, including fundamental principles of the technique, data processing and interpretation and a timeline of inventive contributions to interface design. In addition, applications of the technique are presented, with a more detailed discussion of selected examples.