• HPLC;
  • Microwave;
  • Ultrasound;
  • Vanilla planifolia;
  • Vanillin


Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction of vanillin and its quantification by HPLC in pods of Vanilla planifolia is described. A range of nonpolar to polar solvents were used for the extraction of vanillin employing MAE, UAE and conventional methods. Various extraction parameters such as nature of the solvent, solvent volume, time of irradiation, microwave and ultrasound energy inputs were optimized. HPLC was performed on RP ODS column (4.6 mm ID×250 mm, 5 μm, Waters), a photodiode array detector (Waters 2996) using gradient solvent system of ACN and ortho-phosphoric acid in water (0.001: 99.999 v/v) at 25°C. Regression equation revealed a linear relationship (r 2 >0.9998) between the mass of vanillin injected and the peak areas. The detection limit (S/N = 3) and limit of quantification (S/N = 10) were 0.65 and 1.2 μg/g, respectively. Recovery was achieved in the range 98.5–99.6% for vanillin. Maximum yield of vanilla extract (29.81, 29.068 and 14.31% by conventional extraction, MAE and UAE, respectively) was found in a mixture of ethanol/water (40 : 60 v/v). Dehydrated ethanolic extract showed the highest amount of vanillin (1.8, 1.25 and 0.99% by MAE, conventional extraction and UAE, respectively).