Multiphoton excitation is a relatively old concept in quantum optics. But using multiphoton excitation fluorescence (MPEF) for bioanalysis is still in its infancy. Recently, MPEF has been introduced into the microseparation field, particularly CE, as a novel detection method. In this paper, MPEF detection for CE is reviewed, including MPEF fundamentals, approaches to achieving MPEF, detector configurations and applications in biological and environmental analyses. Emphasis will be placed on some recent advances of CE-MPEF in our laboratory. Challenges and future prospects are also discussed.