• Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography;
  • Fatty acid methyl esters;
  • GC×GC;
  • Vegetable oils


The present research is focused on the use of comprehensive 2-D GC (GC×GC) for the thorough elucidation of fatty acid (FA) profiles contained in vegetable oils; the samples analysed consisted of extra-virgin olive oil and refined hazelnut oil. The enhanced sensitivity and the formation of group-type patterns provided by GC×GC enabled the identification and quantification of both well-known and rather unexpected FAs contained in the lipid matrices. Peak assignment was, in most cases, supported by using pure standard compounds. Of particular interest was the identification of a series of odd-numbered FAs in both samples. The results attained to demonstrate the usefulness of GC×GC also for the analysis of supposedly low-complex samples.