Inorganic analysis of biological fluids using capillary electrophoresis



This review article focuses on recent advances of CE in determination of inorganic species in biological fluids and covers the years of dedicated research in the field since 2001 when a previous similar review was published [1]. The most productive area, in which CE has distinctively progressed over the review period, encompasses assaying major inorganic anions and cations in blood serum and urine. Other applications include assessing less abundant analytes, e. g., heavy metals or seleno-compounds, and less abundant body fluids (saliva, sweat, etc.). Special emphasis is placed on developments in CE methodology that comprised modifications of separation and detection hardware and using specific electrolyte modifiers to enhance the resolution of a CE system. Significant progress in the application of in-line preconcentration methods in order to move CE ahead closer to trace analyte levels is also brought into focus. A series of tables detailing highly developed CE procedures and the analytical figures of merit accomplished are included. Finally discussed are further strategies for the method's expansion in the practice of biomedical and clinical laboratories where CE could likely acquire the status of a benchmark analytical technique.