Single sample extraction protocol for the quantification of NAD and NADH redox states in Saccharomyces cerevisiae



A robust redox extraction protocol for quantitative and reproducible metabolite isolation and recovery has been developed for simultaneous measurement of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its reduced form, NADH, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following culture in liquid media, yeast cells were harvested by centrifugation and then lysed under nonoxidizing conditions by bead blasting in ice-cold, nitrogen-saturated 50 mM ammonium acetate. To enable protein denaturation, ice cold nitrogen-saturated CH3CN/50 mM ammonium acetate (3:1 v/v) was added to the cell lysates. Chloroform extractions were performed on supernatants to remove organic solvent. Samples were lyophilized and resuspended in 50 mM ammonium acetate. NAD and NADH were separated by HPLC and quantified using UV–Vis absorbance detection. NAD and NADH levels were evaluated in yeast grown under normal (2% glucose) and calorie restricted (0.5% glucose) conditions. Results demonstrate that it is possible to perform a single preparation to reliably and robustly quantitate both NAD and NADH contents in the same sample. Robustness of the protocol suggests it will be (i) applicable to quantification of these metabolites in other cell cultures; and (ii) amenable to isotope labeling strategies to determine the relative contribution of specific metabolic pathways to total NAD and NADH levels in cell cultures.