A sensitive method based on ionic liquid for single-drop liquid microextraction coupled with HPLC-UV was developed for the determination of carbonyl compounds in environmental waters using 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C8min][PF6] as extraction solvent and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine as derivatizing agent. The extraction parameters affecting the enrichment factors such as solvent volume, pH, extraction time and salt concentration were investigated. A homemade funnel form polytetrafluoroethylene sleeve was fixed at the tip of the syringe needle and this allowed the use of 10 μL drop of ionic liquid for direct immersion extraction. Under the optimal conditions, the remarkable enrichment factors up to 150-fold were obtained depending on the target analytes. The method has been validated when rectilinear relationship was obtained between the concentrations of analytes and peak area in the range of 5–100 ng/mL, the correlation coefficients were from 0.995 to 0.998, and the limit of detection was in the range of 0.04–2.03 ng/mL. The method was applied to monitor the concentration of carbonyl compounds in environmental waters with spiked recovery in the range of 84.2–106.9%.