A simple and sensitive method was developed and validated for profiling and simultaneous quantitation of seven alkaloids (6-hydroxy-β-carboline-1-carboxylic acid, β-carboline-1-carboxylic acid, β-carboline-1-propanoic acid, 3-methylcanthin-5,6-dione, 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one, 1-methoxycarbony-β-carboline, and 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one) in Picrasma quassioide grown in different locations by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The analysis was conducted on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column at 35°C with mobile phase of 25 mM aqueous ammonium acetate (pH 4.0, adjusted by glacial acetate acid) and acetonitrile. A common fingerprint chromatograph under 254 nm consisting of 27 peaks was constructed for the evaluation of the similarities among 31 P. quassioide samples. Samples from Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces were found to be within group linkage and showed significant difference from that of Jiangxi Province origin by using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. In addition, the seven alkaloids were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and comparing with reference standards and literature data. All of them were determined simultaneously using the established HPLC method. This rapid and effective analytical method could be employed for quality assessment of P. quassioide, as well as pharmaceutical products containing this herbal material.