In this study, the capability of the prepared polyaniline-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles for magnetic solid-phase extraction of three parabens from environmental wastewater, cream, and toothpaste samples is presented. Synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with sulfate-doped polyaniline via polymerization of aniline in the presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and sulfuric acid. Here, polyaniline-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles are presented as anion exchange sorbent, which extract anionic form of parabens via anion exchange with dopant of polyaniline. The experimental conditions affecting extraction efficiency were further studied and optimized. The experimental results showed that maximum extraction efficiency can be obtained at 70 mL sample solution of pH 8, extraction and desorption times of 2 and 1 min, respectively, 100 μL of 3% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile as eluent, and 100 mg of the adsorbent. Under these conditions, the linear dynamic ranges were 0.5–100 μg/L with good correlation coefficients (0.998–0.999). The detection limits were in the range of 0.3–0.4 μg/L and the relative standard deviations were less than 2.4 (n = 5) for the three parabens. Finally, this fast and efficient method was further employed for determination of target analytes in cream, toothpaste, and environmental wastewater samples and satisfactory results were obtained.