We developed a method for the simultaneous quantification of aceclofenac and its three major metabolites in rat plasma. After protein precipitation with acetonitrile including flufenamic acid as an internal standard (IS), aceclofenac, diclofenac, 4′-hydroxyaceclofenac, 4′-hydroxydiclofenac, and the IS were chromatographed on a reverse-phase C18 analytical column. The isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid (aq; 9:1 [v/v]) was eluted at 0.3 mL/min. Quantification was performed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization, and the ion transitions were monitored in selective reaction-monitoring mode. The coefficient of variation in the assay precision was less than 8%, and the accuracy was 92–103%. This method was successfully used to measure the concentrations of aceclofenac and its three major metabolites in rat plasma following the oral administration of a single 20 mg/kg oral dose of aceclofenac.