Recent developments and applications of liquid phase microextraction in fruits and vegetables analysis



The sample preparation step has been identified as the bottleneck of analytical methodology in chemical analysis. Therefore, there is need for the development of cost-effective, easy to operate, and environmentally friendly miniaturized sample preparation technique. The microextraction techniques combine extraction, isolation, concentration, and introduction of analytes into analytical instrument, to a single and uninterrupted step, and improve sample throughput. The use of liquid-phase microextraction techniques for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables are discussed with the focus on the methodologies employed by different researchers and their analytical performances. Analytes are extracted using water-immiscible solvents and are desorbed into gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, or capillary electrophoresis for identification and quantitation.