Optimization of solid-phase microextraction using Taguchi design to quantify trace level polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water

Authors

  • Ismail Anıl,

    1. Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli, Turkey
    2. Department of Environmental Engineering, Fatih University, İstanbul, Turkey
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  • Naciye Öztürk,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli, Turkey
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  • Omar Alagha,

    1. Department of Environmental Engineering, Fatih University, İstanbul, Turkey
    2. Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
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  • Pınar Ergenekon

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli, Turkey
    • Correspondence: Dr. Pınar Ergenekon, Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Kocaeli, Turkey

      E-mail: p.kus@gyte.edu.tr

      Fax: +90-262-6053205

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Abstract

This article introduces a simple, rapid, and reliable solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method coupled with GC-MS for the quantitative determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water. In this study, the Taguchi experimental design was used to optimize extraction conditions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using SPME method to obtain highly enriched analytes. Consequently, quantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water was achieved by GC-MS technique. The selected parameters affecting enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were sample extraction time, stirring speed, temperature, ionic strength, and pH. The study revealed that optimal operating conditions were found to be 90-min extraction time, 1400 rpm stirring speed, and 60°C sample temperature. The effect of ionic strength and pH were shown to be insignificant. Optimized conditions were also reevaluated by placing the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into several subgroups based on their molecular weight. The extraction efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with low molecular weight was shown to be a function of only the extracting temperature. Satisfactory results were obtained for linearity (0.983–0.999), detection limits (2.67–18.02 ng/L), accuracy (71.2–99.3%), and precision (4.3–13.5%). The optimum conditions reported by other design approaches were evaluated and generalized optimum conditions were suggested.

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