An effective analytical protocol using graphene-based SPE coupled with HPLC-MS/MS for determination of chloramphenicol (CAP) in aquatic products has been developed. In the present work, graphene was evaluated as SPE sorbents for the analytes enrichment and clean up. The target analytes were quantified by a triple-quadrupole linear ion trap MS in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. In addition, the proposed method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.5–100 ng/mL. The mean values of RSD of intra- and interday ranging from 1.48 to 4.29% and from 3.25 to 7.42% were obtained, respectively. In the three fortified levels, the recoveries of CAP ranging from 92.3 to 103.4% with RSDs ≤ 5.58% were obtained. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of CAP in several aquatic product samples, indicating that graphene was a potential SPE sorbent for the enrichment of trace residues in food samples.