2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) from Polygoni multiflori has been demonstrated to possess a variety of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. Ultra-performance LC-quadrupole TOF-MS with MS Elevated Energy data collection technique and rapid resolution LC with diode array detection and ESI multistage MSn methods were developed for the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies of THSG in rats following a single intravenous or oral dose. The three metabolites were identified by rapid resolution LC-MSn. The concentrations of the THSG in rat plasma, bile, urine, feces, or tissue samples were determined by ultra-performance LC-MS. The results showed that THSG was rapidly distributed and eliminated from rat plasma. After the intravenous administration, THSG was mainly distributing in the liver, heart, and lung. For the rat, the major distribution tissues after oral administration were heart, kidney, liver, and lung. There was no long-term storage of THSG in rat tissues. Total recoveries of THSG within 24 h were low (0.1% in bile, 0.007% in urine, and 0.063% in feces) and THSG was excreted mainly in the forms of metabolites, which may resulted from biotransformation in the liver.