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Figure S1. Chemical structures of 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG, A), metabolites M1 (B), M2 (C), M3 (D) and rhaponticin (E).

Figure S2. Typical MS spectra of THSG (A) and IS (B) in rat bile.

Figure S3. Proposed mechanism for the decomposition of the m/z 581 [M–H] ion of metabolite.

Figure S4. Representative chromatogram of THSG's metabolites in rat bile by RRLC–DAD-ESI/MSn.

Table S1. Calibration curves for THSG in biological samples

Table S2. Major fragment ions observed for metabolites in negative-ion mode by RRLC–ESI/MSn and UPLC–Q-TOF/MS.

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