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Determination of spinosad at trace levels in bee pollen and beeswax with solid–liquid extraction and LC–ESI-MS



This paper reports the use of a new LC method with a fused-core analytical column coupled to ESI-MS to determine residues of the biopesticide spinosad in bee pollen and beeswax. The method analyzes the active ingredients, spinosyns A and D, with a simple and efficient sample treatment (recovery between 90 and 105%) consisting of a solid–liquid extraction with acetone (bee pollen) or acetonitrile (beeswax). The method was validated in terms of selectivity, LOD, LOQ, linearity, and precision. The LOD and LOQ values ranged between 0.1–0.2 and 0.4–0.7 μg/kg, respectively. Moreover, the precision obtained within the linear concentration range (LOQ 500 μg/kg) was satisfactory (RSD lower than 5%). Finally, the proposed method was applied to analyze bee pollen and beeswax samples collected from apiaries located close to fruit orchards in two Spanish regions.