Application of a new fiber coating based on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide for the cold-fiber headspace solid-phase microextraction of tricyclic antidepressants


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A new fiber based on the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide was prepared on a copper wire for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) applications. The prepared fiber was used for the SPME and gas chromatographic analysis of tricyclic antidepressants (TCADs), including amitriptyline, trimipramine, and clomipramine. The feasibility of direct-immersion and headspace modes of SPME for the determination of TCADs was studied. The effects of four parameters including pH, salt content, extraction temperature with and without cooling the fiber, and extraction time were investigated. The comparison showed that headspace cold fiber SPME results in the best outcome for the extraction of TCADs. Under the optimized conditions of this mode, the calibration curves were linear between 2.0 and 500 ng/mL and the detection limits were between 0.30 and 0.53 ng/mL. The intraday and interday RSDs obtained at 20 ng/mL (n = 5), using a single fiber, were 5.5–9.0 and 7.5–9.8, respectively. The fiber to fiber repeatability (n = 4), expressed as the RSD, was between 12.8 and 13.2% at a 20 ng/mL concentration level. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of TCADs in plasma samples showing recoveries from 73 to 96%.