• business cycle;
  • asymmetric income and price effects;
  • time-varying parameter model;
  • forecasting error


This study assumes that tourists' demand reactions to income and price changes are asymmetric at different phases of the business cycle. In order to test this hypothesis, we analyzed the demand for international tourism in five source markets using a modified growth rate (MGR) model. The empirical evidence demonstrates that income elasticity is indeed asymmetric across the business cycle in four source markets. In addition, asymmetric price effects were found for one source market. To compare forecasting performance, we also estimated a time-varying parameter (TVP) model. The results show that the MGR model generally outperforms the TVP model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.