Ninety female recent assault survivors who met symptom criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomized to one of three interventions: Brief Cognitive Behavioral Intervention, which focused on processing the traumatic event (B-CBT); assessment condition (AC); or supportive counseling (SC). Within 4 weeks of an assault, participants met weekly with a therapist for four 2-hr sessions. Across all interventions, participants reported decreases in PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety over time. At postintervention, participants in B-CBT reported greater decreases in self-reported PTSD severity and a trend toward lower anxiety than those in SC. At 3-month follow-up, participants in B-CBT evidenced lower general anxiety than those in SC and a trend toward lower self-reported PTSD severity. At last available follow-up (on average, 9-months postassault), all three interventions were generally similar in outcome. These findings suggest that a trauma-focused intervention aimed at those with severe PTSD symptoms after an assault can accelerate recovery.