What factors distinguish war-exposed veterans who experience posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) from those who do not? This study used structural equation modeling procedures to examine the complex interplay among predeployment, war-zone, and postdeployment factors as they relate to PTSS in a sample of Gulf War I veterans. A primary goal was to determine to what extent previously documented associations among Vietnam veterans would replicate in this more contemporary veteran cohort. Results supported a multivariate etiological perspective on PTSS, with war-zone factors accounting for the largest proportion of variance in PTSS. The majority of hypothesized associations held, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying PTSS may be similar across veteran cohorts.