In recent years, controversy concerning the psychological consequences of service in the Vietnam war has rearisen. In this article, the Co-Principal Investigators of the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) provide a perspective on new findings reported by B. P. Dohrenwend et al. (2006) that addresses criticisms of the NVVRS PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) prevalence findings, and on a perspective that was provided by R. J. McNally (2006) in an accompanying commentary. They find that Dohrenwend et al.'s study, which evaluated empirically a variety of the critics' alternative explanations and found little support for any of them, represents a landmark contribution to the trauma field. However, they found that McNally's commentary misrepresented the history and context of the NVVRS, and then misinterpreted Dohrenwend et al.'s findings and their importance.