Psychometric analysis and refinement of the connor–davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC): Validation of a 10-item measure of resilience


  • Laura Campbell-Sills,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA
    • UCSD Department of Psychiatry, 8950 Villa La Jolla Drive, Suite B218, La Jolla, CA 92037
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  • Murray B. Stein

    1. Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA; Department of Psychology, San Diego State University; and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA
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  • This study was supported in part by NIH grants MH64122 (Murray B. Stein) and T32 MH18399-19 (Laura Campbell-Sills). The authors wish to acknowledge Timothy A. Brown for statistical consultation and Jonathan Davidson and Kathryn Connor for comments on a draft of this manuscript. Shadha Hami Cissell, Carla Hitchcock, Teresa Marcotte, and Ryan Pepin coordinated data collection and management for the study.


Resilience refers to an individual's ability to thrive despite adversity. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Three undergraduate samples (ns < 500) were used to determine the factor structure of the CD-RISC. The first two samples were used to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the third was used for confirmatory factor analysis. The EFA showed that the CD-RISC had an unstable factor structure across two demographically equivalent samples. A series of empirically driven modifications was made, resulting in a 10-item unidimensional scale that demonstrated good internal consistency and construct validity. Overall, the 10-item CD-RISC displays excellent psychometric properties and allows for efficient measurement of resilience.